Species supporting ecosystem functions
All species have a functional role within ecosystems such as photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, nutrient cycling, predator-prey and symbiotic relationships such as pollination. Plants, fungi, algae, invertebrates and soil micro-organisms are particularly important. The presence, abundance and diversity of species are key factors in determining the resilience of ecosystems to environmental changes, including climate change and disease, and the maintenance of ecosystem services. Further research is required to develop this indicator, building on the existing UK pollinator indicator and defining species groups and functions for inclusion.